This is a list of articles used in Japanese tea ceremony. Please add utensils by category in English and subcategory in Japanese, in alphabetical order. For reasons of appearance and ease of reading, please do not italicize names of dōgu listed here.

This list is part of an expansion of the Japanese tea ceremony series of articles and category. In time it will expand to include articles on the major dōgu listed.

Equipment for tea ceremony is called dōgu (道具; lit., “tools”) or more specifically chadōgu (茶道具; “tea tools”). Chadōgu can be divided into five major categories: decorative items (装飾道具); items for the tea-making and service (点前道具); items for the chakaiseki meal (懐石道具); items used in the preparation room (水屋道具); and items for the waiting room and roji garden (待合・露地道具).[1] A wide range of dōgu is necessary for even the most basic tea ceremony. Generally, items which guests prepare themselves with for attending a chanoyu gathering are not considered as chadōgu; rather, the term fundamentally applies to items involved to “host” a chanoyu gathering. This article, however, includes all forms of implements and paraphernalia involved in the practice of chanoyu.

Boxes

In Japan, cherished items are customarily stored in purpose-made wooden boxes. Valuable items for tea ceremony are usually stored in such a box, and in some cases, if the item has a long and distinguished history, several layers of boxes: an inner storage box (uchibako), middle storage box (nakabako), and outer storage box (sotobako). The storage boxes for tea implements are not tea equipment in themselves, but have a very important place in the practice of chanoyu for the inscriptions on them which serve to validate their history and other such important data.

Chabako

Chabako (茶箱, literally “tea box[es]”). Special lidded boxes containing tea bowl, tea caddy, tea scoop and other equipment, used in certain types of ceremonies. They constitute portable tea-making sets. The box is carried into the tea room, sometimes on a tray, and the ceremony proceeds with each item being removed from, and finally returned to, the box.

Tea boxes are made of wood, and may be lacquered and decorated, or left untreated. There are similar portable tea-making sets called chakago (茶籠, literally “tea basket[s]), in which case the box is of basketry.

Charcoal-related items

Ash container

Haiki (灰器), a shallow bowl used by the host to carry the ash into the tea room for the charcoal-laying procedure. It carries the “sprinkling ash” (makibai) for the procedure in the case of a portable brazier (furo), and the “moist ash” (shimeshibai) for the procedure in the case of a sunken hearth (ro). The styles for these are different.

Ash spoon

Haisaji (灰匙). This is a spatula-like implement mainly used to shape the ash in the portable brazier (furo), or to sprinkle ash during the charcoal-laying procedure.

Charcoal

Sumi (炭)

Charcoal container

Sumitori (炭斗 or 炭取), the container in which the host places the charcoal and charcoal-laying implements for transporting them to and from the tea room for the charcoal-laying procedure.

Charcoal carrier

Hakosumitori (箱炭斗), a charcoal container used in the preparation room, and not considered a formal piece of equipment. It is brought into the tea room if the charcoal in the portable brazier or sunken hearth requires replenishing. It is box-shaped, has a handle, and is made of wood — usually mulberry wood.

Charcoal starter

Feather brooms

Habōki (羽箒). There are various styles. The kind composed of three layered feathers and referred to therefore as mitsubane (三つ羽) is used to dust off the portable brazier or sunken hearth during the charcoal-laying procedure. It is part of the set of equipment carried into the tea room with the charcoal container (sumitori). Other kinds of feather brooms are used for sweeping the tea room.

Hibashi

Hibashi (火箸, literally “fire chopsticks”). Metal chopsticks used to handle charcoal.

Incense container

Kōgō (香合). A small lidded container for the incense that is added to the charcoal fire during the charcoal-laying procedure. For the kneaded incense (nerikō) that is used in a sunken hearth (ro), the container is generally made of ceramic. For the chips of incense wood (kōboku) used in a portable brazier (furo), it is generally made of lacquer ware or plain wood. There are also incense containers made of clam shells.

Cloth items

Chakin

Chakin (茶巾). A small rectangular white linen or hemp cloth mainly used to wipe the tea bowl. There are two main sizes: large and small. Usually the plain term chakin is used in reference to the small size, which is approximately 30.3 cm long and 15.2 cm wide. The raw edges on the lendthwise sides are have a narrow rolled hem finished with serging. These two hems face opposite sides of the cloth.

Fukusa

Fukusa (帛紗). A double layer silk cloth approximately 30 cm or a little less than 12 inches square, with fold on one edge and the other three edges sewn together so the stitching is invisible. It is used for the symbolic cleansing of the tea scoop and tea caddy, and to handle hot kettle or pot lids. The people on the “hosting” side of a tea gathering wear the fukusa tucked into the obi, or belt of their kimono. This is a sign that they are on the hosting side. Due to respect of purification, the host of a formal tea ceremony is expected to use a fukusa never used before. Fukusa are most often monochromatic and unpatterned, but variations exist. There are different colours for men (usually purple) and women (orange, red), for people of different ages or skill levels, for different ceremonies and for different schools. The size and way of making fukusa was purportedly established by Sen Sōon, Sen Rikyū‘s second wife.

Fukusabasami

Fukusabasami are wallets used to carry personal items needed to participate in tea ceremony. The items basically include kaishi paper, a pick for cutting and eating the sweet, a kobukusa, a fukusa, and a small fan. There are two sizes: a smaller one for women, and a larger one for men; the sizes correspond to the two sizes of kaishi paper. Both are rectangular and in many cases are shaped like a traditional envelope, with a flap that closes the wallet. Men’s fukusabasami are generally less ornate and brightly coloured than women’s, but this is not always the case.

Kobukusa

Kobukusa (古帛紗). A cloth approximately 15.15 cm or 6 inches square, which, unlike the cloth called fukusa, is generally of richer and thicker, brocaded and patterned fabric. Its construction is similar to that of a fukusa. Both the people on the hosting side of a tea get-together, as well as the guests, should each carry one. If wearing kimono, it is kept in the breast of the kimono. Guests not wearing kimono might carry it in their fukusabasami. The kobukusa is sometimes used by guests to protect the tea implements whilst examining them. Depending on the circumstances, the host may put one out with the tea, and because of this, kobukusa are also referred to as dashibukusa (“fukusa for serving”).

Shifuku

Shifuku refers to a variety of bags used for storing chaire and other tea implements. They are traditionally made from silk, and are often patterned or brocaded. Shifuku are secured with a silk cord, which is tied in prescribed ways.

Furniture

Daisu

The daisu (台子), the original portable shelf unit used in the Japanese tea ceremony. The most orthodox style is the formal shindaisu, finished in highly polished black lacquer. The lower board rests on the tatami, and there are four posts at the corners of this, supporting a shelf. The width of this unit, from side to side, is equal to the width of a kyōma (Kyoto-size) tatami.

Nagaita

A nagaita (長板) is a wooden board, usually lacquered, on which the main tea implements may be displayed in the tea room. The size derives from the size of the lower board of a daisu.

Shikiita

Shikiita (敷板) is the term for the various kinds of boards on which the portable brazier (furo) may be arranged in the tea room. They are classified by shape as large, half-size, small, or round. They are wooden, and may be finished with lacquer and/or decorated in various other manners. There are rules for what kind of board to use with what kind of brazier.

Tana

Tana (棚), literally “shelf/shelves,” is a general word that refers to all types of wooden or bamboo shelf units used in tea preparation; each type of tana has its own name. Tana vary considerably in size, style, features and materials. The three basic categories are built-in tana (shitsukedana), suspended tana (tsuridana), and portable shelves (okidana). The latter, okidana, are basically categorized as either large shelf units (ōdana) or small shelf units (kodana). Various tea implements are placed on, or stored in, them. They are used in a variety of ways during different tea ceremonies.

Hearths

Binkake

Binkake (瓶掛) are relatively small portable braziers on which to heat the kind of iron hot-water kettle called tetsubin, which has a spout and handle across the top.

Furo

Furo (風炉) are portable braziers used in the tea room to heat the hot water kettle (kama) to make the tea. They are commonly made of ceramic or metal, although there are rare examples of wooden furo as well.

Ro

Ro (炉) are fire pits built into the floor of tea rooms and used in the cold season, for heating the hot water kettle (kama) to make the tea. The frame that fits around it at the top is called robuchi (炉縁, ro frame), and usually is of lacquered wood. In the season when the ro is not in use, the frame is removed and the ro is covered with one of the tatami mats that form the surface of the floor, and is not visible.

Okiro

A portable ro that is set on the floor and is used in circumstances when the room does not have a ro that can be used.

Kaiseki-related items

Choshi

Karamono

Japanese Wikipedia article: 唐物

Karamono (唐物, literally “Tang item”) is a term for refined quality tea implements, mainly ceramics, produced in China particularly in the Song Dynasty, Yuan Dynasty, and Ming Dynasty, which when imported to Japan were selected for their excellence and have been highly valued in Japan ever since. See also Chawan, Chaki.

Kōraimono

Japanese Wikipedia article: 高麗物

Kōraimono (literally, Goryeo item) is a term for tea utensils produced mainly during the Yi dynasty in Korea. See Chawan, Chaki.

Kuniyakimono

Kuniyakimono (国焼物, literally “country fired things”) are ceramics made in Japan. More specifically, the term means “provincial ceramics,” and does not include Kyoto-ware and Seto-ware ceramics.

Miscellaneous items

Chakindarai

A chakindarai is a relatively small bowl, usually made of copper, used for rinsing and washing chakin. It is kept on the bamboo sink-covering in the mizuya.

Chasen kusenaoshi

A chasen kusenaoshi is a shaper for bamboo whisks. Kusenaoshi are made from wood or ceramic; a wet whisk is placed on the shaper and allowed to dry, restoring its shape. This item is used in the mizuya back room, and is not seen in the tea room. See image, top.

Fans

Ōgi (扇) Sensu (扇子).

Futaoki

Futaoki (蓋置, literally “lid rest[s]”) are for resting the lid of the kettle on, and also for resting the water ladle (hishaku) on. They are made of bamboo, ceramic, or metal. There are many styles.

Gotoku

Gotoku (五徳), a metal tripod on which the kettle is set.

Hanaire

Hanaire (花入, literally “flower container[s]); also referred to as kaki (花器).

Incense

Kaishi

Kaishi (懐紙) is white paper used for miscellaneous purposes. It is usually in the form of a pad of paper folded in half. The name indicates that it is paper kept handy in the bosom overlap of the kimono.

Kamashiki

Kamasue

Kensui

The kensui (建水) is the rinse-water container used by the host in the tea room during ceremonies. Usually made of metal or ceramic, though there are some made of lacquered bentwood. Water that has been used to rinse the tea bowl is emptied into it. In the event that the host must dispose of a small item (such as a used sheet of kaishi)[citation needed], he or she will place it in the kensui. It is kept out of sight of the guests as much as possible, being the last item brought into the tea room, and the first item removed. While the kensui is a necessary item for the tea ceremony, and is among the implements the host specially selects for the occasion, it is not among the “showpiece” items the guests are expected to specially notice.

Screens

  • Furosaki byōbu
  • Kekkai

Pots

Kama

Main article: Kama

Kama (釜) are pots, usually made of iron, in which the water used to make tea is heated.

Tetsubin

Main article: [[Tetsubin|]]

Tetsubin (鉄瓶) are iron pots having a pouring spout and handle that crosses over the top. They are used for heating and pouring the hot water during certain tea ceremonies.

Shimamono

Japanese Wikipedia article: 島物

Shimamono is a generic term for tea utensils produced outside Japan, Korea and China.

  • Ruson (呂宋): items from the Philippines
  • An’nan (安南): items from Vietnam
  • Nanban (安南): items from Southeast Asia
    • Sahari (砂張): copper items from Southeast Asia
  • Hannera (ハンネラ): a type of simple bisque ware from Southeast Asia
  • Kinma (蒟醤): a style of lacquer ware that entered Japan from Thailand or Myanmar

Smoking equipment

Tabakobon (煙草盆; lit., tobacco tray), the tray or box for the smoking set that the host provides the guests in the waiting room, at the waiting arbor, and in the tea room at the time of the “thin tea” service (usucha temae).

Hiire (火入; lit., fire container), a container for the lit charcoal that serves as the lighter. Usually made of ceramic. The tabakobon holds this hiire.

Haifuki (灰吹), a bamboo tube that serves as the ash receptacle. The tabakobon holds this haifuki.

Kiseru (煙管), a long-stemmed smoking pipe. The host provides this with the tabakobon.

Sweet-related items

Fuchidaka

Yōji

Tea bowls

Main article: Chawan (茶碗)

Chawan are bowls used for making and drinking matcha tea. They can be classified by country of origin, by potter or kiln, by shape, or by the type of tea they are designed to hold.

Tea containers

Main article: Chaki (茶器)

This category refers to the small lidded caddies that are used to hold the powdered green tea (matcha) for the tea-making procedure (temae) in chanoyu. The term chaki literally translates as “tea implement,” but in the vocabulary of chanoyu it usually implies the small lidded caddies that are used to hold the matcha for the tea-making procedure for usucha (thin tea).[2] All tea containers for usucha may be called usucha-ki. Usucha-ki usually are of lacquered or plain wood, although not necessarily so. Commonly they are of a variety of shape called natsume, and so all usucha-ki tend to be loosely referred to as natsume. Natsume and other forms of usucha-ki are classified by size or shape.

The ceramic caddies usually used to hold the powdered green tea for the procedure to make koicha (thick tea) are basically referred to as cha-ire (茶入; lit., “tea container”).[3] They may also be referred to as koicha-ki. Cha-ire are classified according to country of origin: China (karamono), Japan (wamono), or “island-make” (shimamono). The wamono ones are classified by potter, region, or kiln. All are also classified according to shape.

  • Cha-ire
    • Karamono (唐物)
      • Nasu (茄子)
        • Bunrin
        • Shifukura
      • Katatsuki (肩衝)
      • Marutsubo
      • Tai kai (大海)
      • Tsurukubi (鶴首; lit., “crane-neck”)
      • Shirifukure
    • Wamono (和物)
      • Provincial ware
        • Karatsu (唐津)
        • Satsuma (薩摩)
        • Shigaraki (信楽) Pottery made in Shigaraki, Shiga Prefecture. Japanese Wikipedia article: 信楽焼
        • Takatori
        • Omuro
        • Tanba
        • Bizen (備前) Pottery made in Bizen, Okayama Prefecture. Japanese Wikipedia article: 備前焼
      • Kilns
        • Maemon
        • Rikyu
        • Genjuro
        • Oribe
        • Shidoro
        • Shimbei
        • Tojiro I, II, III, IV
  • Natsume
    • Ō-natsume
    • Chū-natsume
    • Ko-natsume
    • Hira-natsume

Tea scoops

Chashaku (茶杓, tea scoop[s]) are used to transfer the powdered tea from the tea container (chaki) to the tea bowl (chawan). Usually they are made of a narrow, thin piece of bamboo, although there are also those of wood or ivory. They are generally about 18 cm in length. The original ones imported to Japan from China were ivory. Tea masters in Japan have traditionally carved their own bamboo chashaku, providing them with a bamboo storage tube (tsutsu) as well as a poetic name (mei 銘) that will often be inscribed on the storage tube. The selection of the chashaku for use at a chanoyu gathering will largely depend on its poetic name.

Trays

Various styles of trays are used in tea ceremony, including:

  • Hakkebon (round tray with design of the eight Chinese divination symbols)
  • Yamamichibon (“mountain-pass tray,” having undulating rim)
  • Yohōbon (square tray)
  • Sen-no-Rikyu blackie green square tray

Wamono

Wamono (和物) means “Japanese item”; an article produced in Japan. See Chawan, Chaki, Kuniyakimono.

Water containers

Mizusashi

mizusashi (水指) is a lidded container for fresh cold water used by the host in the tea room during ceremonies. The water is mainly used to replenish the water in the kama at the end of certain ceremonies. Mizusashi are generally made of ceramic, but wooden and glass mizusashi are also used. If it is a ceramic mizusashi and has a matching lid of the same ceramic, the lid is referred to as a tomobuta or “matching lid.” Often, a ceramic mizusashi will have a custom-made lid made of lacquered wood, especially if it is a container originally lacking a matching lid.

The mizusashi is one of the main objects in the aesthetic scheme of the objects the host selects for the particular occasion. It is good manners for the main guest (shōkyaku) to ask the host about it. The correspondence about mizusashi is expected to happen just after the water pouring from mizusashi to kama ended and the host puts the lid of the mizusashi back onto it.(citation required) Mizusashi are classified by their shape, and in the correspondence, the type of shape, creator, period, and other such points of interest may be asked by the guest and delivered.

Mizutsugi

A mizutsugi (水次, water pourer) is a lidded water pitcher used to replenish the vessel for fresh water (mizusashi) at the end of certain ceremonies. There are ones of metal, ones of ceramic, and ones of bentwood. This water pitcher is not kept in the tea room, but rather is brought in as the final step of certain ceremonies.

Water ladles

Hishaku (柄杓). This is a long bamboo ladle with a nodule in the approximate center of the handle. It is used to pour hot water into the tea bowl from the iron pot (kama) and to transfer cold water from the fresh water container to the iron pot when required. A tetsubin does not require the use of a hishaku. Different styles are used for different ceremonies and in different seasons. A larger version that is made of cypress wood is used for the ritual rinsing of hands and mouth by guests before entering the tea room, or for use by the host in the back preparation area of the tea room (mizuya), in which case it distinguished as mizuya-bishaku.

Whisks

Chasen (茶筅) are bamboo whisks used to prepare matcha. They are hand-carved from a single piece of bamboo. There are differences in their style according to the type of bamboo they are made from, the shape of the tines, the number of tines, the thickness of the bamboo, the length of the bamboo, the color of the thread that is woven around the bottom of the tines, and so on. Different schools of chanoyu (see Schools of Japanese tea ceremony) prefer different styles and employ different styles depending on the particular kind of tea or tea-preparation style for which it is to be used. For instance, there are specific styles for preparing thin tea (usucha), thick tea (koicha), tea offerings in tenmoku tea bowls, tea in tall cylindrical tea bowls, for including in a portable boxed tea set (chabako), for outdoor tea-making, for New Year’s, and for other special auspicious occasions. Also, there are styles such as the “Rikyū-gata” (利休形) or “Sen Rikyū model”; the style attributed to Sen Rikyū’s son Dōan and referred to as the “Dōan-gonomi” (道安好) style, and other such “favored” (好; konomi) styles of famous tea masters, so that the styles have continued to increase.[4]

Generally, the kind used for whisking thin tea (usucha) has 80, 100, or 120 fine tines.

Tea equipment is called chadōgu (茶道具; literally “tea tools”). A wide range of chadōgu is necessary for even the most basic style of chanoyu. A full list of all available tea implements and supplies and their various styles and variations could fill a several-hundred-page book. The following is a brief list of some essential components:

  • Chakin (茶巾). The “chakin” is a small rectangular white linen or hemp cloth mainly used to wipe the tea bowl.
 

Two modern “thin tea” bowls

  • Tea bowl (chawan 茶碗; main article: chawan). Tea bowls are available in a wide range of sizes and styles, and different styles are used for thick and thin tea (see Tea ceremony, below). Shallow bowls, which allow the tea to cool rapidly, are used in summer; deep bowls are used in winter. Bowls are frequently named by their creators or owners, or by a tea master. Bowls over four hundred years old are in use today, but only on unusually special occasions. The best bowls are thrown by hand, and some bowls are extremely valuable. Irregularities and imperfections are prized: they are often featured prominently as the “front” of the bowl.
Broken tea bowls are painstakingly repaired using a mixture of lacquer and other natural ingredients. Powdered gold is added to disguise the dark colour of the lacquer, and is known as kintsugi or “joint with gold,” and additional designs are sometimes created with the mixture. Bowls repaired in this fashion are used mainly in November, when tea practitioners begin using the ro, or hearth, again, as an expression and celebration of the concept of wabi, or humble simplicity.
  • Tea caddy (chaire 茶入 and natsume ; main article: chaki). Tea caddies come in two basic styles, the natsume and the chaire, though there is variation in shape, size and colour within the styles. Chaire, which are used for koicha, are usually tall and thin (but shapes may vary significantly) and have ivory lids with gold leaf undersides. Chaire are usually ceramic, and are stored in decorative bags called shifuku. Natsume are mostly used for usucha, and are named for their resemblance to the natsume fruit (the jujube). They are short with a flat lid and rounded bottom, and are usually made of lacquered wood.
  • Tea scoop (chashaku 茶杓). Tea scoops generally are carved from a single piece of bamboo, although they may also be made of ivory or wood. They are used to scoop tea from the tea caddy into the tea bowl. Bamboo tea scoops in the most casual style have a nodule in the approximate center. Larger scoops are used to transfer tea into the tea caddy in the mizuya (preparation area), but these are not seen by guests. Different styles and colours are used in various tea traditions.
  • Tea whisk (chasen 茶筅). This is the implement used to mix the powdered tea with the hot water. Tea whisks are carved from a single piece of bamboo. There are various types. Tea whisks quickly become worn and damaged with use, and the host should use a new one when holding a chakai or chaji.
Old and damaged whisks are not simply discarded. Once a year around May, they are taken to local temples and ritually burned in a simple ceremony called chasen kuyō, which reflects the reverence with which objects are treated in the tea ceremony.

All the tools for tea ceremony are handled with exquisite care. They are scrupulously cleaned before and after each use and before storing.